Phosphatase Subfamily PPP4C

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Phosphatase Classification: Fold PPPL: Superfamily PPPL: Family PPP: Subfamily PPP4C (catalytic subunit of PP4 holoenzyme)


PPP4C is found in opisthokonta, amoebazoa and plants. Each of Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans and monosiga has two PPP4Cs, which arose through different evolutionary events within individual lineages. For example, the second copy of Drosophila melanogaster CG11597 emerged in melanogaster group (see gOrtholog and Drosophila phylogeny).


PPP4C has a single domain - phosphatase domain.


PPP4C, catalytic subunit of Protein Phosphatase 4 (PP4) holoenzyme, is closely related to PPP2C, the catalytic subunit of PP2A holoenzyme. Like PP1 and PP2A, holoenzyme PP4 consists of the catalytic subunit and one or two regulatory subunits. At least 6 different holoenzyme complexes have been found.

Mammal PP4 participates in a number of processes essential for normal cellular physiology, including microtubule organization, homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair, the DNA damage response, histone modification, apoptosis, immunoglobulin (Ig) VDJ recombination, pre-TCR signaling, TNF signaling, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signaling, and NF-κB regulation. Germline deletion of PP4 in mice is embryonic lethal, and conditional deletion of PP4 specifically in murine T cells severely impairs T cell development (see introduction in [1]).

See here for unorganized notes of functions.


  1. Chen MY, Chen YP, Wu MS, Yu GY, Lin WJ, Tan TH, and Su YW. PP4 is essential for germinal center formation and class switch recombination in mice. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107505. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107505 | PubMed ID:25215539 | HubMed [chen14]